Tag Archives: data breach

Data Protection Day 2021: What You May Have Missed (while busy celebrating Data Protection Day)

This year’s celebrations for Data Protection Day may have been a bit toned down. But you still may have been so busy celebrating that you may have missed a couple of news from the (data privacy) world.

First, the EDPB’s Guidelines 01/2021 on Examples regarding Data Breach Notification are out and open for comments until March 2nd.  The document can be used as a very practical guide for whoever is involved in data processing activities. It is aimed at helping data controllers in deciding how to handle data breaches and what factors to consider during risk assessment. The Guidelines reflect the experiences of the European supervisory authorities since the GDPR became applicable and they are full of cases and examples which make them, admittedly, a practice-oriented, case-based guide for controllers and processors. So, are you curious to know what to do in case of a ransomware attack with backup but without exfiltration in a hospital? Or perhaps in case of a credential stuffing attack on a banking website? Or you’re “just” trying to figure out what to do in case of mistakes in post and mail?  Then, check out the guidelines!

Meanwhile, in Italy, the Italian Data Protection Authority gave its favourable opinion to the proposed reform of the Italian Registro Pubblico delle Opposizioni, a service designed for the protection of data-subjects, whose telephone number is publicly available but who wish not to receive unsolicited direct marketing calls from an operator. Nevertheless, the Italian Data Protection Authority specified that such service, essentially based on a list of express dissents, only applies to marketing activities carried out by human operators and cannot be extended to automated calls. The Italian Data Protection Authority, by doing so, confirms that marketing activities carried out through automated systems must be subject to stricter measures and always require express consent, given their highly invasive nature. So: Humans 1, Automated Calling Machines: 0.

Electronic Medical Record: Italian Data Protection Authority Issues New Guidelines

On June 4, 2015, the Italian Data Protection Authority issued new guidelines governing the collection and processing of personal and sensitive data through the Electronic Medical Record.

  • What is an Electronic Medical Record?

A record, kept by a hospital or a healthcare center, containing patients’ clinical history at that specific hospital or healthcare center.

  • Patients’ rights

The guidelines set forth several rights to which patients treated at any hospital or healthcare center are entitled:

  1. Patients are entitled to decide whether the hospital or the healthcare center may store their data through an Electronic Medical Record. If a patient denies his/her consent, physicians will be able to rely only on information gathered during examination and treatment, as well as on information previously conveyed by the patient, if any. Denial of consent will not affect the possibility of being treated at the hospital/healthcare center.
  2. Specific consent is needed for the collection of certain categories of sensitive date, such as HIV infections, abortions, data relating to sexual assault. With respect to such data, patients will have the right to limit access to specific individuals/professionals.
  3. In addition to all rights granted by the Data Protection Code (such as the right to receive confirmation on the existence of personal/sensitive data, to know the origin of the data, the purpose and means of processing, as well as the logic applied to the processing) patients will also be entitled to receive information on each access to their Electronic Medical Record.
  • Hospitals and healthcare centers’ obligations

Hospitals and healthcare centers are required to provide patients with a thorough privacy notice concerning the processing of data through the Electronic Medical Record. Upon patients’ request, hospitals and healthcare centers shall also provide information concerning stored data and access logs to the Electronic Medical Record (including the professional accessing the data, date and time of access) within 15 days of the request. Patients will also be entitled to redact data or healthcare documentation that they do not wish to be included in their Electronic Medical Record.

The Data Protection Authority’s guidelines also address important technical aspects and provide that patients’ healthcare information contained in the Electronic Medical Record shall be segregated from other administrative data. Sensitive data will need to be encrypted. Furthermore, access to the record will be granted only to medical staff involved in the patient’s treatment and any access and processing will be recorded on log files to be kept by the hospital or healthcare center for at least 24 months.

Lastly, the guidelines set forth strict data breach requirements for hospitals and healthcare center, by providing that any data breach or unauthorized access shall be reported to the Data Protection Authority within 48 hours of knowledge of the breach. Failure to report will lead to the application of penalties.

See the Data Protection Authority’s presentation of the new guidelines